Home | About Us | Current Issue | Ahead of print | Archives | Search | Instructions | Subscription | Feedback | Editorial Board | e-Alerts | Login 
Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
     Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
Official journal of the Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons         
 Users Online:3339 
  Print this page Email this page   Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size

Year : 2009  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 121

Anterior saggital anorectoplasty and peri-vaginal musculature

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Ankur Hospital for Children, 1666, E, 10th Lane, Rajarampuri, Kolhapur, India

Date of Web Publication10-Nov-2009

Correspondence Address:
Dinesh Kittur
Ankur Hospital for Children, 1666, E, 10th Lane, Rajarampuri, Kolhapur
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0971-9261.57708

Rights and Permissions


How to cite this article:
Kittur D. Anterior saggital anorectoplasty and peri-vaginal musculature. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2009;14:121

How to cite this URL:
Kittur D. Anterior saggital anorectoplasty and peri-vaginal musculature. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg [serial online] 2009 [cited 2023 Mar 22];14:121. Available from: https://www.jiaps.com/text.asp?2009/14/3/121/57708


While performing an anterior sagittal anorectoplasty (ASARP) we are usually concerned about the proper site, the size of the neo-anus, but reconstruction of vaginal muscles seems to be ignored.

Following are the important points to be considered regarding the anatomy of the pelvic diaphragm:

  1. Disposition of iliococcygeus, ischiococcygeus and pubococcygeus is in the form of a cone-shaped basin.
  2. In the female, the innermost and lowermost fibers of this diaphragm encircle the three important structures, that is, urethra, vagina in its lower one-third and the rectum. It is known that a tear in the perineal body may cause divarication of the levators and contribute to uterovaginal prolapse. This is prevented by an episiotomy, which provides a clean, easily repairable wound.
  3. The muscle fibers from each side meet in the midline and give a sphincteric effect to all the three structures.

If we consider the pathological anatomy of female ARM, especially the rectovestibular fistula and vestibular anus, the innermost fibers of the levator (pubovaginalis), encircle both the vagina and the fistula of anal canal at the perineal level. The fibers of the ischiococcygeus and iliococcygeus are attached to the perineum in the midline.

The rule of nature is "Function follows Form."

Steps for performing "ASARP"

Step 1. The innermost and lowermost fibers of the levator, that is, the pubovaginalis and puborectalis are dissected from the perineal level free from the rectum and vagina so as to dissect the length of rectum, which is adequate to bring it to the desired anal site.

Step 2. The vertical fibers of the iliococcygeus and ischiococcygeus, which have been split into two halves (right and left), are wrapped around the rectum up to the anal canal so as to effectively straighten the angle of the rectum for proper defecation.

It is worth noting that the lowermost fibers of the pubococcygeus (pubovaginalis), which are supposed to encircle the lower one-third of the vagina are left deep inside, which is approximately 2 cm in small infants and 5-7 cm in older children. Also during the repair of the perineum these are not attached to the newly constructed perineal body.

The whole effect of the above mentioned procedure is that the pelvic diaphragm becomes a wide and shallow cone. Considering "Starling's Law," [1] the length of the muscle fibers encircling the vagina is reduced since their attachment to the perineal body is not repaired; hence, the function is bound to be hampered in later life.

What are the problems that we can anticipate for these girls in later life during adulthood?

  1. The vagina does not have pelvic muscles for support in the lower one-third.
  2. These females will not be able to exert a squeezing effect on the penis during coitus.
  3. The physiology of orgasm will be disturbed and the propagation of sperms toward the cervix will be altered.
  4. These patients will be more prone to prolapse of the uterus. [2]

I feel that we need to consider a few steps during "ASARP" to set the anatomy right and hope to give normal sexual pleasures to these patients in their adulthood. [3] Sexual satisfaction during coitus is very personal and subjective; thus, it is difficult to assess these factors during adulthood in these patients. Such an assessment would evaluate the success of this procedure.

   References Top

1.Rushmer R. Applicability of Starling's law of the heart to intact, unanaesthetized animals. Physiol Rev 1955;35:138-42.  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Williams P. 'Gray's anatomy. 38th ed. Churchill Livingstone; 1875. p. 832-3.  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Gyton and Hall. Textbook of medical physiology. 10th ed. 2004. p. 941.  Back to cited text no. 3      


Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article


   Next article
   Previous article 
   Table of Contents
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Article in PDF (14 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded131    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal

Contact us | Sitemap | Advertise | What's New | Copyright and Disclaimer | Privacy Notice

  2005 - Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 

Online since 1st May '05