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Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
     Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
Official journal of the Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons         
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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2023  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 227-232

Assessment of gastric residual volume with ultrasound in children at fasting and after oral intake of carbohydrate-rich fluid in the preoperative period


1 Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Paediatric Surgical Super-Specialities, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Aarti Agarwal
Type 5, House No. 3, New Campus, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow - 226 014, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jiaps.jiaps_121_22

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Purpose: Despite standard preoperative fasting guidelines, children are subjected to prolonged fasting due to various reasons. This does not reduce gastric residual volume (GRV) further, instead causes hypoglycemia, hypovolemia, and unnecessary discomfort. We calculated the cross-sectional area (CSA) of antrum and GRV in children in fasting state and 2 h after intake of oral carbohydrate-rich fluid, using gastric ultrasound. Methods: Anteroposterior and craniocaudal gastric antral diameters were measured by ultrasonography in the right lateral decubitus position, at fasting and at 2 h after 8 ml/kg of pulp-free fruit juice ingestion. CSA of antrum and GRV was calculated using validated mathematical models. Results: Data of 149 children of age >1–12 years were analyzed. Greater than ninety-nine percent of children emptied ≥95% of the ingested pulp-free fruit juice volume within 2 h. One hundred and seven (71.8%) children had reduced CSA and GRV at 2 h after fruit juice ingestion (2.01 ± 1.00 cm2 and 7.77 ± 6.81 ml) as compared to fasting state (3.18 ± 1.40 cm2 and 11.89 ± 7.80 ml). Fourty-nine (28.2%) children had slightly increased CSA and GRV at 2 h after fruit juice (2.46 ± 1.14 cm2 and 10.61 ± 7.26 ml) than at fasting (1.89 ± 0.92 cm2 and 8.61 ± 6.75 ml), but this increased GRV was grossly lower than limit of risk stomach (26.54 ± 8.95 ml). Conclusion: Carbohydrate-rich drink in the form of pulp-free fruit juice may be safely permitted up to 2 h before anesthetic induction, as it promoted gastric emptying in ≈ 72% of children and 28% of children, although GRV was slightly higher at 2 h after fruit juice ingestion than fasting but remained considerably lower than limit of risk stomach.






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