| ORIGINAL ARTICLE
|Year : 2023 | Volume
| Issue : 5 | Page : 369-374
Evaluation and management of achalasia cardia in children: A retrospective observational study
Nitin Kumar, Bahubali Deepak Gadgade, Achyuth Ananth Shivapur, Veerabhadra Radhakrishna, Raghunath Bangalore Vasudev
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Background: Achalasia cardia is a neuromuscular disorder of unknown etiology characterized by aperistalsis of the body of the esophagus and failure of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. The diagnosis of achalasia cardia is delayed due to the rarity and the ability to mimic other common conditions in children. Hence, a study was conducted to evaluate the clinical presentation and the management of achalasia cardia in children.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted in the department of pediatric surgery at a tertiary center. The children with achalasia cardia who presented between January 2014 and December 2021 were included.
Results: A total of 12 patients were treated for achalasia cardia during the study period. All children presented with recurrent episodes of vomiting, whereas dysphagia was seen in six (50%) children. Eighty-three percent of the children presented with a history of weight loss, whereas failure to thrive was seen in nine (75%) children. Five (42%) children were managed as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) for more than a year before presenting to us. Three (25%) children underwent open cardiomyotomy with Thal fundoplication and the rest nine (75%) underwent laparoscopic cardiomyotomy. All are thriving well.
Conclusion: Achalasia is an important differential diagnosis in children with suspected GERD. The most common symptom of achalasia cardia is vomiting followed by dysphagia. Weight loss and failure to thrive are important presenting features in children with achalasia which are uncommon in adults. Cardiomyotomy without fundoplication is safe and effective to treat achalasia cardia in children without having any extra complications.
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
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