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Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
     Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
Official journal of the Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons         
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-February 2023
Volume 28 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-89

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Presidential address at 48th Annual conference of the indian association of pediatric surgeons (iapscon 2022) Goa october 14-16, 2022 p. 1
Yogesh Kumar Sarin
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Effect of cytomegalovirus infection on initial presentation and overall prognosis of biliary atresia patients p. 5
Ayushi Vig, Poonam Elhence, Kirtikumar J Rathod, Shubhalaxmi Nayak, Avinash Sukdev Jadhav, Manish Pathak, Rahul Saxena, Arvind Sinha
Background and Aim: Biliary atresia is known to have a multifactorial etiology and perinatal infection with hepatotropic viruses such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a probable trigger in a subset of patients. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of CMV association of biliary atresia on the initial presentation of patients and their response to Kasai portoenterostomy. Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective, single-center study on 20 patients of biliary atresia and classified them into two groups based on their CMV immunoglobulin M (IgM) positivity. We compared the age of initial presentation, the liver biochemistry at presentation, immediate and delayed follow-up, rate of jaundice clearance following Kasai portoenterostomy, and histopathology of liver between the two groups. Data were reported in terms of means, and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of 20 cases of biliary atresia, 60% (n = 12) were CMV IgM positive. Infants with CMV-positive status were noted to be older at presentation (88.5 days [65–150 days] vs. 83 days [45–160 days] P < 0.05) were more jaundiced at presentation (total bilirubin – 13.51 mg/dl [9.09–15.99 mg/dl] vs. 11.83 mg/dl [6.5–13.5 mg/dl] P < 0.05), had higher alkaline phosphatase (751.2 IU/L [387–1951 IU/L] vs. 621.75 IU/L [172–857 IU/L] P < 0.05), higher gamma-glutamyl transferase levels (505.58 IU/L [376–1127 IU/L] vs. 376.75 IU/L [186–624 IU/L] P < 0.05), and had higher incidence of splenomegaly. The rate of resolution of jaundice postKasai portoenterostomy was also evidently less in CMV-positive patients. Four out of 12 patients have bilirubin >2 mg/dl at a 6-month follow-up. Conclusion: CMV-associated biliary atresia patients have delayed initial presentation and impaired jaundice clearance postKasai portoenterostomy. The role of antiviral therapy should be studied in this subset of patients.
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To Compare Short-term Surgical Outcome among Patients given Continuous Postoperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis and those given no Postoperative Antibiotics after Urethroplasty for Hypospadias: A Pilot Study p. 9
Vivek Manchanda, Mamta Sengar, Parveen Kumar
Introduction: There is no well-accepted guideline or uniform practice for the usage of prophylactic antibiotics along with urethroplasty for hypospadias. As antibiotic resistance is growing, it is imperative to rationalize the usage of antibiotics when a patient is operated for hypospadias. Aims and Objectives: The study is aimed at finding if there is any difference in outcome if prophylactic antibiotics are given after urethroplasty for hypospadias. Study Design: Prospective randomized controlled study. Material and Methods: Forty patients between 6 months and 12 years of age were included in the pilot study. All patients received a single preoperative antibiotic and surgery as per the discretion of the operating surgeon. The participants were randomly assigned to Group A or B, Group A not receiving any prophylactic antibiotic after surgery, and Group B receiving prophylactic antibiotics till indwelling urethral catheter was in situ as per the present antibiotic policy of the institute. The patients were followed up clinically at catheter removal, 1 week after surgery and 1 month after surgery. Urine was analyzed at the start of surgery and after catheter removal. Data were tabulated and analyzed using nonparametric Fischer's exact test with help of Epi Info v5.5.8. Results: Twenty-four patients were included in Group A and 16 in Group B. The clinical profile is presented in the detailed manuscript. Although pus cells could be demonstrated on urine examination in 82.5% of the study participants, only 10% grew organisms on culture media. No difference could be demonstrated among the two groups statistically. On following up with the patients for 1 month, the groups were comparable with respect to surgical site infections, and surgical complications such as urethrocutaneous fistula/dehiscence and thin stream. Discussion: There was a wide variability among practicing pediatric urologists in prescribing antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing urethroplasty for hypospadias. In the Urologic Surgery Antimicrobial Prophylaxis Policy by the American Urology Association, no recommendation has been made with respect to urethroplasty. Our results are in concurrence with the available English literature which has not shown any benefit of prophylactic antibiotics after hypospadias repair. Conclusions: Antibiotics may not have a definite role in the prevention of surgical complications and it may be imperative to avoid unnecessary antibiotics to reduce antibiotic resistance.
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Hernia of umbilical cord: An enigma p. 14
Pooja Tiwari, Ram Mohan Shukla, Maneesh Kumar Joleya, Sarvagya Jain, Ashok Kumar Ladda, Shashi Shankar Sharma, Vinod Raj, Brijesh Kumar Lahoti, Manoj Joshi
Introduction: Hernia of the umbilical cord (HUC) is an uncommon problem which is often misdiagnosed, leading to inadequate treatment and various complications which cause increased morbidity and mortality in neonates. To address this issue, we took up this study. Materials and Methods: Patients diagnosed with HUC from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2021, were retrospectively analyzed. The following data of all these patients were collected and retrospectively analyzed: demography, radiological investigations, echocardiography, contents of hernia, type of surgery performed, and outcome. Results: Eighteen out of 19 patients included in the study were taken up for surgery after baseline investigations and echocardiography. Out of 19 patients, 15 were discharged successfully and are on regular follow-up. Of the remaining four patients, an anastomotic leak occurred in two and they went into sepsis and succumbed. One of the patients died before any intervention and one succumbed on 3rd postoperative day due to sepsis. Conclusion: Timely referral and intervention can save precious lives. We need to educate doctors and health-care providers so that proper diagnosis and timely management can be done for this anomaly which is associated with less morbidity and a lower rate of associated anomalies.
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Thoracic tumors in children and their long-term outcomes: A single-center experience p. 18
Neehar Patil, Padmalatha S Kadamba, Manjiri Somashekhar, Jeevak Shetty, Somashekar A Rama
Aims: This study aims to review our experience in children with thoracic tumors managed by different surgical approaches, and to evaluate their long-term outcomes in relation to their functional status and quality of life. Subjects and Methods: This is a retrospective study (2011–2021). Children <18 years with tumors of the thorax (lung, mediastinum, and thoracic cage) were included. All included were diagnosed, managed, and followed up based on a departmental protocol. Children alive were followed up annually to monitor the development of chest wall/spinal deformities and assessed regarding their quality of life (Lansky play-performance scale) and pulmonary functions. Information regarding their demography, clinical presentations, diagnosis, treatment administered, outcome, and follow-up details were collated and analyzed. Results: Twenty-two children with thoracic tumors were included (2011–2021). Of which, 6/22 are benign and 16/22 are malignant lesions. About 14/22 children are alive on a regular follow-up until 2021, with a mean follow-up of 6 years (benign) and 6.25 years (malignant). About 3/22 children with malignant tumors requiring thoracotomy with rib resections developed scoliosis with a severely restrictive pattern on pulmonary functions, having a mild-to-moderate restriction of play on quality of life grading. Conclusions: Early follow-up of children who have undergone various surgical approaches for thoracic tumors based on the quality of life assessment and pulmonary function tests helps in planning early intervention if needed, especially in those who have undergone thoracotomy with rib resections, thereby improving their long-term functional status.
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A novel technique of SMA massage with systemic fibrinolytic therapy in ischemic midgut volvulus: As a lifesaving last expedient Highly accessed article p. 25
Vandana Basappa Giriradder, Vinay Jadhav, PL Anilkumar, M Narendra Babu
Purpose: Midgut volvulus is a surgical emergency requiring immediate intervention. Intestinal ischemia of the midgut as a consequence of volvulus from malrotation is a fateful event with high mortality and significant morbidity even in survivors. Derotation followed by correction of malrotation is the procedure of choice though has significant morbidity if intestinal reperfusion was not successful. A combined treatment to restore intestinal perfusion based on the digital massage of the superior mesenteric artery after derotation and systemic infusion of fibrinolytic has been previously reported with success but underused. Here, we report three such cases of midgut malrotation with severe intestinal ischemia due to volvulus. Materials and Methods:A retrospective analysis of three confirmed cases of midgut malrotation with volvulus managed with emergency laparotomy, derotation, and Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) massage with systemic fibrinolytic therapy, followed by correction of malrotation was evaluated. Results: There was dramatic improvement in intestinal perfusion noted in all three patients inspite of delayed presentation. 2 out of 3 patients on follow up are doing well with adequate weight gain while 1 patient succumbed due to sepsis. Conclusion: Critical intestinal ischemia due to mesenteric thrombosis can persist after derotation of midgut volvulus and can lead to devastating consequences. The use of digital massage of SMA to disrupt the thrombus along with fibrinolytic therapy though reported is underutilized. Hence, awareness of this management and usage needs to be re-emphasized.
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Overlooked factors causing renal damage in vesicoureteric reflux! p. 29
Uday Sankar Chatterjee, Ashoke Kumar Basu, Debasis Mitra, Dhananjay Basak
Introduction: Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR), recurrent urinary tract infection (RUTI), febrile urinary tract infection (FUTI), renal scarring, and renal damage are intimately related. Key factors of renal damage in VUR are suspected to be RUTI and FUTI. Hence, conventional treatments are targeted toward the prevention of RUTI and FUTI. However, literatures have witnessed that control of infection is not sufficient enough. That means we are missing some hidden, enigmatic, or overlooked factors which are essentially responsible for renal damage. We know RUTI occurs from the stasis of urine in system and stasis might occur from obstruction somewhere in system. Moreover, obstruction builds up back pressure in the bladder and ureters, and ultimately in kidneys; that pressure is independently harmful to renal function. Pressure is further harmful if this joins together with infection. We know that RUTI and FUTI along with pressure in the urinary tract are harmful to renal parenchyma. Nevertheless, search for the nexus of obstruction, pressure, stasis, infection, and damage (OPSID) of renal function is not yet focused on in VUR research. In this retrospective study on secondary VUR, we would like to find the overlooked factors or nexus of OPSID associated with VUR causing renal damage. Patients and Methods: A total of 170 renal units of 135 patients with VUR resulted from the posterior urethral valve and from repaired bladder exstrophy, from March 2005 to April 2019, had adequate data regarding control/correction of obstruction and urodynamic studies. The mean patient's age was 2.8 years (range 1 day–14 years). The diagnosis of VURs was made with postnatal cystogram in patients of the posterior urethral valve and of repaired continent augmented bladder exstrophy. We do cystogram not micturating cystogram following ultrasonography if showing dilated ureter/s. If we find no residual in ureter/s after 30 min in cystogram, we label it as “rise and fall” VUR (raf_VUR), i.e., without obstruction. On the other hand, if there is post void residual in ureter/s for more than 30 min, we label it as “rise and stasis” VUR (ras_VUR) means combination of VUR with uretero vesical junction obstruction (UVJO). Along with this, all patients were followed up with albumin creatinine ratio, creatinine clearance, USG Renometry, DTPA renal scan, uroflowmetry, and urodynamic study (UDS). Repeat cystoscopy, if necessary, was done following UDS for secondary bladder neck incision (BNI) or for repeat BNI if necessary. Results: Mean duration of follow-up was 7.2 years (range 3–14 years). Out of 170 renal units, 132 renal units had VUR without VUJO, i.e., raf_VUR and 38 renal units had ras_VUR. All patients of UVJO were relieved either with anticholinergics or with DJ stenting or by re-implantations. Twenty-nine patients out of 135 had high pressure on UDS, and they needed BNI. We were able to prevent upstaging of chronic kidney disease (USCKD) in all 135 patients. Conclusions: Our tangible goal of treatment in VUR is the prevention of USCKD. We differentiated raf_VUR from ras_VUR with cystogram. Patients with ras_VUR and patients with raf_VUR with high bladder pressure were actively treated. This particular subset VUR was treated with prophylactic antibiotic and surgical corrections. We prevented renal damage by eliminating obstruction and stasis which helped to prevent RUTI and FUTI. Possibly, similar management might also help to manage “primary VUR.” Possibly those overlooked factors which are essentially responsible for renal damage are veiled in nexus OPSID of the kidney.
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Clinical profile of acute pancreatitis in children and adolescents from a single center in Northern India p. 35
Nida Mirza, Sagar Mehta, Karunesh Kumar, Smita Malhotra, Anupam Sibal
Introduction: There has been an increase in incidence of pancreatitis in children all over the world; studies in developed countries shown multiple etiological factors such as drugs, infections, trauma, anatomic abnormalities, and/or genetic pancreatitis in children; however, there are sparse data from the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine the characteristics of Indian children with acute pancreatitis (AP), mainly the clinical features, etiology, complication, association, genetic factors, and outcome and recurrence. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of all patients under the age of 18 years, who had a final diagnosis of pancreatitis admitted at our center between 2017 and 2019. Results: During the 3-year period from 2017 to 2019, 40 patients were admitted at our center with AP. We found a definite etiology in 62.5% cases of patients, which were broadly grouped into seven etiologies: structural, genetic, drug induced, concurrent illness, cholelithiasis related, metabolic, and autoimmune. Recurrence of acute episodes was noted in 13 patients (32.5%). Of these, 11 were found to have a genetic mutation, underlying structural abnormality, or concurrent illness. In our study, we found that 23 patients (57.5%) had mild AP, while 14 patients (35%) had moderately severe pancreatitis; however, 3 patients (7.5%) had severe AP. Discussion: We found that most cases of pancreatitis in children were of mild severity, and the etiology was quite different than adults, and most cases of acute recurrent pancreatitis have a definite etiology of either genetic mutation or structural anomaly.
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A critical appraisal of clinicopathological, imaging, and genexpert profiles of surgical referrals with pediatric abdominal tuberculosis p. 41
Archana Puri, Peter Daniel S. Khairong, Smita Singh
Aim: To study the clinicopathological, imaging, and GeneXpert profiles of surgical referrals with abdominal tuberculosis (TB) and to compare the utility of GeneXpert versus conventional diagnostic armamentarium. Materials and Methods: This cohort study which was conducted over a study period of 8 years (2011–18) included seventy-seven children operated with a provisional diagnosis of abdominal TB and those who had either histological (n = 58; 75.3%) or GeneXpert (n = 9) confirmation or had miliary tubercles on exploration with supportive clinical and imaging findings (n = 17; 22.1%). GeneXpert testing was added to the diagnostic armamentarium only in the latter half of the study (2016–18, n = 31). Demographic details, symptomatology, prior antitubercular treatment, GeneXpert positivity, imaging, operative, and histological findings were recorded and analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and range for continuous variables and proportion for categorical variables. Results: Perforation peritonitis (n = 26; 33.8%) and unrelieved obstruction (n = 51; 66.2%) were the main surgical indications. The mean age at presentation was 9.5 ± 3.6 years with a distinct female preponderance. The presence of right lower abdomen lump (n = 23; 29.9%), alternate diarrhea and constipation (n = 34; 44.1%), tubercular toxemia (n = 38; 49.4%), positive history of contact (n = 20; 25.9%), tuberculin positivity (n = 38; 49.4%), fibrocavitary pulmonary lesion (5.2%), clumped bowel loops with pulled-up cecum (n = 23; 29.9%), septated ascites (n = 17), mesenteric lymphadenopathy and omental thickening (n:18; 23.4% each) were the supportive tell-tale signs of the disease. The hallmark of pathological diagnosis was caseous necrosis with epithelioid granulomas (n = 43; 55.8%), nongranulomatous caseation (n = 15; 19.5%), and acid-fast bacilli positivity in 27.3% of patients. GeneXpert was positive in only nine patients with an overall sensitivity of 29% as compared to 75.3% for histopathology. Conclusion: Bacteriological and histological confirmation of the disease eluded us in a significant proportion of patients, requiring a very high index of clinical suspicion to clinch the diagnosis. The current version of GeneXpert has low sensitivity in diagnosing pediatric abdominal TB.
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Blunt abdominal trauma in children: A review of 105 cases p. 48
Salsabil Mohamed Sabounji, Doudou Gueye, Gabriel Ngom
Aims: The aim of the study is to identify the epidemiological, diagnostic, therapeutic, and evolutionary characteristics of patients admitted for blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) in a level 3 children's hospital. Subjects and Methods: It was a retrospective and descriptive study on a series of 105 cases of BAT recorded over 8 years. The data were collected from patients' files. The analysis was done on Excel 2016. Several parameters were studied: frequency, age, sex, cause of trauma, circumstances, mechanism, mode of transportation, admission time, medical history, symptoms and signs, laboratory findings, radiological findings, injury assessment, associated injuries, type of treatment, and evolutionary modalities. Results: The frequency was 13.1 cases/year. The mean age was 6.6 years. The sex ratio was 3.56. Road traffic accidents were the most frequent cause (54.3%). Abdominal tenderness (88.6%) was the most common physical sign. Associated lesions were found in 40% of cases. Abdominal sonography (85.7%) was the most common imaging tool followed by an abdominal computed tomography scan (34.4%). The liver was the most affected organ (24.7%) and contusion was the most frequent lesion (65.4%). The majority of patients had received nonoperative treatment (93.3%). The average length of hospitalization was 5.6 days. The outcome in all cases was favorable. No mortality was reported. Conclusions: BAT in children is common in boys under the age of 10. They are caused by road accidents. Physical examination combined with abdominal ultrasound is very important in the therapeutic decision, which in most cases is a conservative one. Morbidity and mortality are almost nil.
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Quality improvement in pediatric surgical ward rounds after implementation of checklist p. 54
TK Jayakumar, Rupesh Sikchi, Kirtikumar J Rathod, Arvind Sinha
Introduction: Using checklists has been common in high-risk industries such as aviation, space, and maritime sectors. It is routinely being used in health care also. Daily ward rounds play an essential role in patient care. Missing key details in rounds are common. Sometimes, these medical errors can lead to adverse events or mismanagement of patients. A checklist was introduced for daily ward rounds in our newly established institution. This study aims to assess the improvement in the documentation. Materials and Methods: A checklist for ward rounds was introduced in September 2018. During the study period, between July 2017 and January 2020, 30 random case records for each of the two groups were taken. Group A (without checklist) and Group B (checklist) were compared to see the documentation of patient identification, diagnosis, operative status, fresh complaints, vitals, examination findings, charting treatment, catheters/drains/intravenous access, and urinary status/bowel movements. Results: Sixty case records were included in the study. Comparison of documentation between Group A and Group B showed a significant difference in patient identification (50% vs. 100%), diagnosis (47% vs. 100%), operative status (33% vs. 100%), fresh complaints (76% vs. 100%), vitals (63% vs. 100%), examination findings (43% vs. 100%), charting treatment (73% vs. 100%), catheters/drains/intravenous access (10% vs. 86%), and urinary status/bowel movements (30% vs. 100%). Conclusion: Using checklists for daily ward rounds improves documentation. It reduces the gap in communication and potential errors in patient management.
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Double whammy due to coronavirus disease-2019: Invasive small bowel mucormycosis with recent-onset diabetic ketoacidosis presenting as diffuse fecal peritonitis in a 12-year-old girl p. 59
Prashant K Zulpi, Vijay K Kulkarni, Hephzibah Rani, Anil Halgeri, Aditya Agnihotri
Mucormycosis is a fatal fungal infection occurring in immunocompromised patients. Small bowel mucormycosis is extremely rare with a high mortality rate. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with postcoronavirus disease (COVID) recent-onset diabetic ketoacidosis, who presented with acute abdomen with fecal peritonitis. She was diagnosed with intestinal mucormycosis (post-COVID) and was treated successfully with surgical and antifungal management.
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Recurrent hemangioma of the penile urethra – An unusual etiology of gross hematuria managed successfully with holmium laser coagulation p. 62
Atanu Kumar Pal, Bikash Kumar Naredi, Ramanitharan Manikandan, Sidhartha Kalra, Bibekanand Jindal, Naseera Koya
Urethral hemangioma is a benign uncommon vascular tumor. It presents with hematuria and macroscopic urethrorrhagia. Urethrocystoscopy is the main diagnostic modality. We share the case of a 14-year-old male child who presented with recurrent massive hematuria and was treated with urethra-cystoscopic holmium laser coagulation.
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Evolution of antenatally diagnosed bronchogenic cyst in an infant p. 66
Anita Singh, Ankur Mandelia, Apurva Kawdiya, Kirti Naranje, Neha Nigam
Bronchogenic cyst is one of the rare developmental lung conditions. Depending on the location, it can cause significant compression of the mediastinal structures, especially airways leading to atelectasis, emphysema, wheezing, and stridor. Computerized tomography helps in the confirmation of diagnosis. Surgery is definitive management. We present a case of bronchogenic cyst which presented as emphysema leading to respiratory emergency in an infant.
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Rapunzel syndrome: A concealed tale of the misleading tail p. 69
Deepak Kumar, Vaibhav Pandey, Ruchira Nandan
The diagnosis of Rapunzel syndrome can sometimes be challenging. The silent features such as poor appetite, constipation, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hypoproteinemia were all overlooked in our patient initially. The Rapunzel tail leads to multiple intussusceptions and an unexpected perforation sealed by intussusceptions. Perforation sealed by intussusceptions in a clinically stable patient of Rapunzel syndrome has never been reported.
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Congenital transmesenteric hernia – A rare presentation Highly accessed article p. 72
Anilkumar Pura Lingegowda, B Amit, Pramod R Pillai, Ramachandra Chandrayya
Congenital transmesenteric defect is a rare but serious condition which presents a diagnostic challenge as symptoms and investigations are nonspecific. Here, we present a case with fetal ascites and dilated bowel loops who underwent intervention within 6 h of birth. Laparotomy showed volvulus and gangrene of 45 cm of the distal ileum, which was herniating through mesenteric defect. Timely detection and intervention can help in preventing significant morbidity and mortality. Given the downside to delay of surgical intervention and lack of specific tests, open exploration continues to be the only way to establish a definitive diagnosis of a transmesenteric hernia.
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Frozen section biopsy and nephron-sparing surgery for a multiloculated cyst of the kidney; Is this the ideal approach? p. 75
M Aditya, Sujit K Chowdhary, Vikas Kashyap
Multiloculated cystic renal masses are uncommon in the pediatric population. The presentation may be as an asymptomatic incidental finding on imaging, abdominal mass, abdominal pain, or urinary tract infection. The differentiation between benign and malignant causes of a cystic lesion by clinical and radiological examination is difficult. Tru-cut biopsy is not recommended due to fear of upgrading a malignant tumor. A definitive diagnosis is confirmed histopathologically only after surgery. Based on certain imaging characteristics, benign nature can be suspected and a conservative approach to surgery can be contemplated to save the kidney. Frozen section biopsy is useful in ruling out malignancy while doing nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) in these patients. NSS may be done by an open or minimally invasive approach. After histological confirmation of cystic nephroma, no other adjuvant treatment is necessary, but long-term surveillance is strongly recommended.
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Dog bite causing intestinal perforation in a child: A case report with review of literature p. 80
Deepak Kumar Garnaik, Jaydeep Jain, Enono Yhoshu
Dog bite injuries are common in children. They are a major cause of morbidity and mortality involving commonly the extremities, head, and neck. Injuries to the torso represent only 10% of injuries. Visceral injury by a dog bite in children is a rare clinical scenario with very few cases reported. We present a 2-year-old female child who suffered a severe dog bite injury causing colonic perforation.
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Dermoid cyst of tongue masquerading as a lingual neurofibroma p. 82
Varsha Pattanaik, Revathi Palagani, Vivek Gharpure
Dermoid cysts of the tongue are rare lesions of the head-and-neck region with only 16 reported cases in the English literature to date. We describe a 5-year-old girl who presented with a swelling in her tongue. Imaging done earlier was reported as a neurofibroma. It turned out to be a dermoid cyst. This was the first such case at our institute and this article reviews the literature and describes the said case in detail.
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Neonatal umbilical myiasis: A rare presentation in the neonatal period p. 84
Rohit Anand, Arasavilli Manidurga Sai, Sushma Nangia
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Pediatric umbilical hernia: Is repair with continuous suture safe? p. 85
Florent Tshibwid A. Zeng, Doudou Gueye, Ndeye Aby Ndoye, Papa Alassane Mbaye, Omar Iq-Lefqih, Aloise Sagna, Gabriel Ngom
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Newborn umbilical cord stump myiasis: Report of an earliest presentation p. 86
Shyam Bihari Sharma, Rahul Gupta
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Bowel–Bladder dysfunction: Putative and serendipitous management p. 87
Uday Sankar Chatterjee, Indranil Chatterjee
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Erratum: Congenital malignant rhabdoid tumor of neck p. 89

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