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Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
     Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
Official journal of the Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons         
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
May-June 2022
Volume 27 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 275-370

Online since Thursday, May 12, 2022

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Hirschsprung's disease: Perspectives upon late presentation in India and developing nations Highly accessed article p. 275
Ram Samujh
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Oral atenolol versus propranolol in the treatment of infantile hemangioma: A systematic review and meta-analysis Highly accessed article p. 279
Swapnil Annasaheb Pattanshetti, Vidya M Mahalmani, Phulen Sarma, Hardeep Kaur, Md Mokkaram Ali, Muneer Abas Malik, Nitin James Peters, Manisha Prajapat, Subodh Kumar, Bikash Medhi, Ram Samujh
Background: Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most common benign vascular tumor of infancy. Propranolol is considered first-line therapy for IH. However, it is associated with side effects. Therefore, there was a need for alternative therapy. Atenolol, a selective b1-blocker may be free from such side effects. Hence, the present study aims to develop a more accurate estimate of the safety and efficacy of atenolol compared to propranolol in the treatment of IH. Methodology: A search of various literature databases (PubMed, Embase, Ovid, Scopus, Cochrane Central, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) was done to identify studies which compared propranolol versus atenolol in the treatment of IH. The combined odds ratio along with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were evaluated using a fixed-effects model. Results: A total of 300 articles were screened of which five studies including 116 patients in atenolol arm and 138 patients in the propranolol arm were analyzed. Atenolol was comparable to propranolol in terms of efficacy as no significant difference was seen between both the treatment arms in terms of hemangioma activity score (mean difference 0.25 [95% CI;‒0.21, 0.71]) and complete response (odds ratio [OR] =0.43; 95% CI; 0.17, 1.11; P = 0.08,). Atenolol therapy was better than propranolol in terms of safety, i.e., serious/potentially serious side effect, (OR = 0.11; 95% CI; 0.02, 0.51; P = 0.005) and wheezing/bronchial hyperreactivity (OR = 0.11; 95% CI; 0.02, 0.51; P = 0.005). Conclusion: The present meta-analysis provides evidence that atenolol has got a comparable efficacy and better safety profile with propranolol
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Clinical profile, outcomes and predictors of mortality in neonates operated for gastrointestinal anomalies in a tertiary neonatal care unit- An observational study p. 287
Antony Leo Jerry, Prakash Amboiram, Umamaheswari Balakrishnan, Ashok Chandrasekaran, Prakash Agarwal, Usha Devi
Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) malformations have varied short-term and long-term outcomes reported across various neonatal units in India. Methods: This descriptive study was done to study the clinical profile, outcomes and predictors of mortality in neonates operated for congenital GI malformations in a tertiary neonatal care unit in South India between years 2011 and 2020. Details were collected by retrospective review of the case sheets. Results: Total of 68 neonates were included with esophageal atresia (EA) in 10, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) in 9, duodenal atresia (DA) in 10, ileal atresia in 8, jejunal atresia in 5, anorectal malformations (ARM) in 11, meconium ileus/peritonitis in 9, malrotation in 2, and Hirschsprung's disease (HD) in 4. Antenatal diagnosis was highest in DA (80%). Associated anomalies were maximum in EA (50%), the most common being vertebral, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal and radial abnormalities, and limb abnormalities association (VACTERL). Overall mortality was 15%. IHPS, DA, Malrotation, HD and ARM had 100 % survival while ileal atresia had the least survival (38%). Gestational age <32 weeks (odds ratio [OR] 12.77 [1.96, 82.89]) and outborn babies (OR 5.55 [1.01, 30.33]) were significant predictors of mortality in babies operated for small intestinal anomalies. None of the surviving infants were moderately or severely underweight at follow-up. Conclusion: Overall survival of surgically correctable GI anomalies is good. Among the predictors for mortality, modifiable factors such as in-utero referral of antenatally diagnosed congenital anomalies need attention. One-fifth had associated anomalies highlighting the need to actively look for the same. Although these neonates are vulnerable for growth failure, they had optimal growth on follow-up possibly due to standardized total parenteral nutritional policy during neonatal intensive care unit stay.
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Musculoskeletal and esthetic complications after neonatal thoracotomy: Revisited p. 293
Gali Divya, Vijay Kumar Kundal, Pinaki Ranjan Debnath, Raja Sekhar Addagatla, Anil Kumar Garbhapu, Arnab Kumar Saha, Atul Kumar Meena, Shalu Shah, Amita Sen
Aim: The aim is to study the complications of neonatal thoracotomy and its preventive measures. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 53 neonates who underwent thoracotomy from January 2017 to December 2019 for a period of 3 years. Patient demographic data, primary disease for which they underwent thoracotomy, postoperative complications (immediate and delayed) during follow-up were documented. Results: During 3-year period, 53 neonates underwent thoracotomy for various surgical pathologies. The indications were esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula (n = 49), eventration of diaphragm (n = 3), congenital lobar emphysema of left upper lobe of lung (n = 1). Most of them were right posterolateral thoracotomies (n = 48, 90.56%) and left posterolateral thoracotomy was done in only 5 cases (9.43%). Associated anomalies were seen in 22 cases, such as cardiac (n = 19), renal (n = 4) and gastrointestinal (n = 5). Associated comorbidities seen in 14 cases; preterm (n = 4), low birth weight (n = 13), delayed presentation (n = 6). Early postoperative complications such as pneumonia (34%, n = 18) and wound infection (11.3%, n = 6) were noted. Delayed complications include musculoskeletal abnormalities (n = 19, 35.8%) and esthetic complications such as asymmetry of chest (5.6%). Conclusion: Neonatal thoracotomy is associated with complications such as pneumonia, wound infections, and musculoskeletal abnormalities such as asymmetry of chest and scoliosis. These can be prevented by adequate postoperative pain relief, muscle-sparing thoracotomies, avoiding tight closures, and nerve injuries. Long-term follow-up is required because these complications may manifest later on also. Early detection and institution of physiotherapy may help.
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Pelviureteric junction obstruction due to vascular anomalies in children – Simple surgical options p. 297
Neehar Patil, Attibele Mahadevaiah Shubha, Kanishka Das
Aims: Pelviureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) due to aberrant lower polar artery is conventionally managed with pyeloplasty. We present our experience of managing PUJO due to “vascular” anomalies-aberrant lower polar artery and vascular adhesions with simpler surgical options. Subjects and Methods: This is a protocol based, retrospective study of PUJO. Preoperative investigations included ultrasonography (USG) and diuretic renogram. An intraoperative methylene blue test (MBT) assessed transit across the Pelviureteric junction (PUJ) after release of vascular compression. Surgical management included adhesiolysis for vascular adhesions and pyelopyelostomy anterior to the aberrant polar artery. Postoperative studies were repeated after 3 and 6 months. Results: Fourteen of 144 PUJO (9.7%) were “vascular” obstructions. Those with vascular adhesions (six) were largely infants with antenatal hydronephrosis. Children with aberrant lower polar artery (eight) were older, had fleeting symptoms, minimally increased pelvic diameter and subtle impairment on diuretic renogram. Majority were term males with urinary tract infection. The MBT showed normal transit across the PUJ in all. Postoperatively, there was progressive improvement on USG and diuretic renogram after 3 and 6 months. None had any complication or redosurgeries. At a mean follow-up of 41.2 months, all are asymptomatic. Conclusions: PUJO due to extrinsic vascular anomalies is rare. Intraoperative evaluation with the MBT ruled out associated intrinsic pathology. We describe two simple surgical alternatives preserving the normal PUJ - adhesiolysis for vascular adhesions and pyelopyelostomy for aberrant lower polar artery. The preliminary outcomes are comparable to conventional pyeloplasty.
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Pediatric colorectal carcinoma: A series of seven cases p. 304
Nidhi Mahajan, Harshita Agarwal, Chhabi Ranu Gupta, Mamta Sengar, Arti Khatri, Niyaz Khan
Introduction: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) accounts for <1% of all the neoplasms of children. Unfavorable histology and delayed diagnosis often result in poor outcome. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristic and prognosis of pediatric patients with CRC. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of all patients diagnosed of CRC between 2015 and 2020 was performed. Data regarding gender, age, location, and histopathology were collected. Results: Seven children (5 males and 2 females) were included in the study. Age ranged between 8.6 and 11.8 years. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom. The duration between onset of symptoms to the diagnosis ranged from 5 days to 8 months. Right-sided tumors were more common than the left side. Histopathological examination showed mucinous adenocarcinoma in four/seven patients and signet cell variant was seen in 2/7. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin and beta-catenin, however, all microsatellite instability markers were found negative. Despite surgical treatment and chemotherapy, four of our cases faced mortality and one patient was lost to follow-up. Conclusion: CRC can present in first decade of life and often misdiagnosed. Pediatric CRC has distinct tumor biology and shares a poor prognosis. Paucity of literature from the Indian subcontinent should urge further clinicopathological trials for establishing etiology and for refining treatment recommendations in these children.
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Muscle-sparing skin crease incision posterolateral thoracotomies in pediatric patients: Our experience p. 309
Rahul Gupta, Praveen Mathur, Anu Bhandari
Context: Standard posterolateral muscle cutting thoracotomies in pediatric patients are associated with morbidities in terms of poor motor and esthetic outcomes and also more postoperative analgesia requirement, when compared with muscle-sparing technique. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of muscle-sparing skin crease incision posterolateral thoracotomies in pediatric patients in terms of abovementioned variables. Settings and Design: This prospective observational study was conducted over a period from January 2016 to July 2020 in a tertiary care teaching institute. Materials and Methods: All patients of stage 3 empyema and pulmonary hydatidosis were included in the study. Results: Thirty-nine patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. There were 38 children with organized (Stage 3) empyema and one patient with bilateral lung hydatid. There were 24 males and 15 females; age ranging from 6 months to 15 years. Right thoracotomy was performed in 28, left in 10, and bilateral in one patient with lung hydatid. Adequate exposure was achieved in all cases. Decortication with complete excision of thickened parietal pleura with stripping of the visceral peel and release of the entrapped lung was performed in all 38 patients. In 5 children along with decortication, repair of bronchopleural fistula due to necrotizing pneumonia was performed. Bilateral thoracotomies with pericystectomies were performed with a gap of 3 weeks for lung hydatid. Lung expansion assessment at 3 months was satisfactory. Ultrasound assessment of the latissimus dorsi muscle and serratus anterior muscle at 4 weeks revealed complete integrity in all the cases. Most of the patients achieved satisfactory motor and esthetic outcomes. Conclusions: Muscle-sparing skin crease incision posterolateral thoracotomy is a viable alternative to standard posterolateral muscle cutting thoracotomy, especially in a resource-challenged setting. The technique is easy to perform with satisfactory exposure.
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Comparison of cisplatin monotherapy and PLADO in the management in children with standard-risk hepatoblastoma in a resource-challenged nation p. 317
Sandeep Agarwala, Vishesh Jain, Anjan Dhua, Madur Srinivas, Prabudh Goel, Sameer Bakhshi, Venkateswaran K Iyer, Rajni Yadav, Manisha Jana, Priyanka Naranje, Veereshwar Bhatnagar
Background : Recent SIOPEL studies have shown cisplatin monotherapy to be equally effective in management of Standard risk Hepatoblastoma (SRHB)as compared to PLADO. Aims and Objectives: To study the chemotherapy, response and outcomes in children with SRHB. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted and all children with SRHB who presented to us from June 2007 to December 2017 were included. All patients with standard risk hepatoblastoma who had received at least 2 cycles of chemotherapy were included. Data regarding the demographics, PRETEXT stage, chemotherapy, response to chemotherapy and outcomes were recorded. Kaplan Meier survival analysis was performed to calculate 5 year overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS). Results: Thirty two children were included in the study. The disease was PRETEXT I in 5 (15.6%), II in 9 (28.1%) and 18 (56.2%). Nineteen children (59.4%) received Cisplatin monotherapy and of these 6 patients (all PREXT III) had poor response and the chemotherapy was upgraded to PLADO. The remaining 13 (40.6%) received upfront PLADO chemotherapy. Only 31 patients could be operated. Tumor recurred in 5 patients, 2 who had upfront PLADO and 3 patients had been upgraded to PLADO. The 5 year OS and EFS was 100% in the monotherapy group (n=13), 92% and 69% in the upfront PLADO group (n=13), and 62% and 22% in the upgraded to PLADO group (n=6). Patients with PRETEXT III disease in whom chemotherapy was upgraded to PLADO had significantly lower survival (p=0.036) compared to those who received upfront PLADO chemotherapy. Conclusion: Two thirds of patients with PRETEXT stage III who received cisplatin monotherapy showed poor response and were upgraded to PLADO chemotherapy. These patients had a significantly poorer outcome compared to the rest of the cohort. PRETEXT stage III standard-risk hepatoblastoma may benefit from PLADO chemotherapy instead of cisplatin monotherapy.
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Is ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block superior to a caudal epidural or wound infiltration for intraoperative and postoperative analgesia in children undergoing unilateral infraumbilical surgery? A double-blind randomized trial p. 323
Mukesh Singh Rautela, Ameeta Sahni, Niti Dalal
Background and Aim: Caudal block (CB) is the standard of care in pediatric surgeries. Ultrasound (USG) transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has also been used as an effective regional anesthesia technique. We compared the duration of postoperative and intraoperative analgesia between TAP block, CB, and local wound infiltration (LI) in children undergoing unilateral infraumbilical abdominal surgery. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty children, 3–10 years old and American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I and II, undergoing elective unilateral infraumbilical abdominal surgery were allocated to three groups. Group TAP: USG-guided TAP block with 0.5 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine; Group CB: CB with 0.75 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine; and Group LI: Local wound infiltration along the incision with 0.5 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine. The primary outcome was the efficacy of postoperative analgesia using modified objective pain score (MOPS), and the secondary outcome was to determine intraoperative analgesia with fentanyl requirement and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) hour of isoflurane among the three groups. Results: The MOPS was statistically better in Group TAP compared to group CB and group LI at 8 and 24 h postoperatively. The mean ± standard deviation duration of postoperative analgesia in groups CB, LI, and TAP was 6.84 ± 0.47, 2.3 ± 1.26, and 9.78 ± 1.02 h, respectively. The intraoperative requirement of fentanyl and MAC hour was least in Group CB. Conclusion: We found that USG-guided TAP block is a good alternative, with longer and effective postoperative analgesia compared to CB. However, the quality of intraoperative analgesia was best in group CB. Local infiltration was a poor alternative.
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The syringe technique for ultrasound-guided hydrostatic intussusception reduction p. 329
Sandeep Rai, Aureen Ruby DCunha, RM ShreeRaghu, Neevan DSouza
Background: Ultrasound-guided hydrostatic reduction (UGHR) is a well accepted and widely used method of paediatric intussusception reduction, with the saline drip technique being the most commonly employed. Aims and Objectives: In this study we aimed to assess the outcomes of a novel technique of UGHR. Materials and Methods: Data was obtained from a 15 year retrospective chart review of paediatric intussusceptions. Following resuscitation, UGHR was performed for uncomplicated intussusceptions using a 50cc syringe to infuse saline into the colon. It was performed in the ultrasound suite without sedation and time taken was monitored. A maximum of 3 attempts were done to achieve reduction. Results: UGHR was attempted in 66 of 93 intussusceptions. The commonest type of intussusception was ileo-colic(91%) and the commonest symptom was vomiting(70%). Surgery was performed only when there was shock, peritonitis or repeated failed reductions. The median time taken for reduction was 4.9 minutes. The overall success rate was 83% with 89% of these requiring only a single attempt. There were no deaths or procedure related complications. Conclusions: The syringe technique for intussusception reduction is a safe, effective, and time-saving technique. Additionally, it offers the advantages of simplicity and rapidity of reduction and in experienced hands may not require pressure monitoring
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Outcome of Patients with Antenatally Diagnosed hydronephrosis with Respect to Postnatal Diagnosis and Need for Surgical Intervention p. 333
Sandeep Singh Sen, Prema Menon, Muneer Abbas Malik, Kushaljit Singh Sodhi
Aims: This study aims to determine the etiology of antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH) and predict need for surgical intervention based on antenatal renal pelvis anteroposterior diameter (APD). Materials and Methods: Combined prospective and retrospective study (2012–2018) of ANH cases with postnatal follow-up. Surgical intervention was correlated with the degree of hydronephrosis (HDN) and pelvis APD measured at the 2nd trimester, 3rd trimester, and postnatal 6-week follow-up. Results: One hundred and sixty-five patients were studied with a total of 219 ANH units. Transient HDN was seen in 116 units. Surgical intervention included pyeloplasty (n = 76), sub ureteric dextranomer injection (n = 8) and nephrectomy (n = 1). Chances of requiring surgery based on the degree of HDN in 2nd and 3rd trimester respectively were mild: 11.32% and 9.52%, moderate: 34.21% and 37.03% and severe: 85.71% and 86.27%. The mean increase in APD between the 2nd and 3rd trimester (n = 50) was lesser in conservatively managed (3.548 ± 4.219 mm) than surgically managed (8.261 ± 5.857 mm) patients (P = 0.002). In another subset (n = 37), the mean increase in APD between the 2nd trimester and postnatal period was less in conservatively managed (1.432 ± 0.612 mm) (P = 0.088) than surgically managed patients (12.91 ± 3.247 mm) (P = 0.004). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that an APD of 8.2 mm in the 2nd trimester and 12.85 mm in the 3rd trimester correlated with the requirement of postnatal surgery. Conclusion: Apart from the degree of HDN, significant changes in APD between 2nd and 3rd trimester and cut off value suggested by the ROC curve will help during antenatal counseling with regard to requirement of postnatal surgery.
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Meckel's diverticulum – Clinical presentation and pitfalls in diagnosis in the pediatric age group in Singapore p. 340
Ganakirthana Kalpenya Devi, Anne Hui Yi Goei, Kalyanasundaram Ragavendra, Xuxin Lim, Candy S C. Choo, Lin Yin Ong, Harvey James Eu-Leong Teo, Narasimhan Kannan Laksmi
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to study the presentation of patients who underwent Meckel's diverticulectomy (MD) and utility of pertechnetate Meckel's scan in the diagnosis of MD. Methods: The clinical presentation of a retrospective cohort of patients who underwent MD from January 2007 to December 2019 was studied. The modes of presentation, treatment, and the diagnostic utility of pertechnetate Meckel's scans were evaluated. False-positive and false-negative scans were reviewed. The presence of gastric mucosa on histology of Meckel's was correlated with presentation as gastrointestinal bleeding and positive scan results. Results: Ninety-nine patients underwent MD. Thirty-five out of 263 (13.3%) Meckel's scans done were positive. There was a male preponderance (86.9%). The peak age of presentation was 0–4 years (rectal bleeding or intestinal obstruction). Only a third of the patients with Meckel's diverticulum Meckel's had a preoperative diagnosis of Meckel's. The sensitivity/specificity of Meckel's scan was higher in patients presenting with painless rectal bleeding. Seven patients were false positive (weak tracer uptake or ectopic uptake) and five were false negative. Two patients with false-negative Meckel's scan, having gastrointestinal bleeding had gastric mucosa on histology of Meckel's. Conclusion: Meckel's diverticulum has a male predominance. Meckel's scan has a high sensitivity in the children presenting with fresh painless rectal bleeding but is of limited use in the diagnosis of Meckel's diverticulum in other forms of presentations. False-positive scans can be anticipated in the presence of weak or ectopic uptake. False-negative scans can occur even in the presence of bleeding and in spite of the presence of gastric mucosa in the Meckel's diverticulum. Laparoscopy is a useful tool in diagnosis and treatment.
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Delayed presentation of jejunal atresia with multiple enteric fistula: A case report and review of literature p. 345
Ruchira Nandan, Anjan Kumar Dhua, Devendra Kumar Yadav, Vishesh Jain, Prabudh Goel
A 6-month-old boy presented with features of intestinal obstruction. Laparotomy revealed Type IIIa jejunal atresia. The proximal and distal bowel loops were in continuity through multiple fistulae between the adjoining bowel loops. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report of congenital Type IIIa intestinal atresia surviving beyond the neonatal age without surgery.
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Case of botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma mimicking biliary hydatid disease p. 348
Suha Mohammad Akbar, Harish Chandra Tudu, Subrat Kumar Mohanty, Amaresh Mishra, Sruti Mohanty
Hepatobiliary rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a soft tissue malignant musculoskeletal tumor of the biliary tract. It is rare tumor, mostly seen in children and mimics common benign biliary condition. Here, we present a case of 1 year 9 months child of biliary RMS who presented with obstructive jaundice and diagnosed after biopsy. This case highlights the unusual childhood malignancy of bile duct RMS in obstructive jaundice with atypical imaging findings.
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Surgical management of an infant with nonresolving pneumonia p. 351
Sumant Prabhudesai, Vishal Sawant, Sujoy Das, Bharati Sawant
We describe a 3-month-old baby who presented with a nonresolving pneumonia which failed to respond to antibiotic therapy. An underlying congenital pulmonary adenomatous malformation was suspected. On thoracotomy, she was found to have a tuberculous mediastinal abscess which was drained. Mediastinal abscess is a rare occurrence in childhood tuberculosis.
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Adrenal and mesenteric teratomas in infants: Common tumors in uncommon sites p. 354
Raktim Ray, Soumya Dey, Farjana Khatun, Shibsankar Barman, Mou Das, Uttara Chatterjee, Ruchirendu Sarkar, Koushik Saha
Teratomas are common tumors in children. The most common sites are gonads, however, several extragonadal sites are well known such as sacrococcygeal region, mediastinum, head and neck, stomach, and vagina. Occasionally, teratomas occur in unusual sites which pose diagnostic difficulties. Here, we describe two cases of infantile teratomas with unusual presentation. The first case was a 6-month-old girl who presented with a mass in the right side of the abdomen. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed a solid-cystic mass in the right suprarenal region. The second was a 4-month-old boy who came with a huge abdominal mass. Contrast-enhanced CT showed a tumor arising from the jejunal mesentery. On microscopic examination, they were diagnosed as mature and immature teratoma, respectively. Although neuroblastoma is the most common infantile adrenal neoplasm, the possibility of teratoma should be considered for cystic adrenal lesions. Mesenteric teratoma can be difficult to distinguish radiologically from the more common lymphangioma; however, accurate diagnosis is important in view of long-term follow-up for teratomas because of the possibility of malignant transformation.
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Acinar cell carcinoma of the uncinate process of the pancreas in a child managed sans Whipple's procedure-a rare case scenario p. 357
Tanvi Goel, Sachit Anand, Anjan Kumar Dhua, Aanchal Kakkar, Sandeep Agarwala, Veereshwar Bhatnagar
Acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumor of the pancreas. A 10-year-old girl presented with a large tumor arising from the pancreatic head. Excision sans Whipple's procedure was performed. Histopathology revealed it as ACC. In the context of this case, this rare tumor is being reported to highlight that such tumors arising from the head of the pancreas can be managed successfully without always resorting to a Whipple's procedure.
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Kluth type I-2 variant of pure esophageal atresia – First case report and challenges in its management p. 360
Rohit Kapoor, Amit Gupta, Rajiv Chadha
This is the first case report of the Kluth type I-2 variant of esophageal atresia. The peculiar anatomy of this variant does not suit (1) esophageal substitution via posterior mediastinal route, (2) esophageal lengthening for preserving native esophagus and (3) distal esophageal stump stoma for gastric feeds.
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Meconium peritonitis presenting with nonimmune hydrops and mirror syndrome p. 362
Purbasha Mishra, Tanushree Sahoo, Pankaj K Mohanty, Tapas K Som, Bikasha Bihari Tripathy, Sweta Singh
Meconium peritonitis (MP) presenting as hydrops is a rare entity. A 34-week hydropic infant was born to mother diagnosed with a case of nonimmune hydrops. Postnatally, the neonate was diagnosed as a case of MP based on clinical examination and investigations. The neonate underwent exploratory laparotomy which revealed diffuse MP with ileal perforation. She underwent resection of ileal perforation with ileocolic anastomosis. The index case highlights the importance of thorough clinical examination and abdominal X-ray in the diagnosis of MP.
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Yolk Sac Tumor of the Cervix in an Infant: A Surgical Dilemma p. 365
Swati Narasimhan, Janani Arul, Rajendran Swaminathan, Prakash Agarwal
A 5-month-old child presented with vaginal bleeding and found yolk sac tumor of the uterine cervix. She attained complete remission only with chemotherapy and on follow-up for more than a year. We report this for the unusual age and feasibility of avoiding surgery in selected cases.
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Pediatric pseudotumoral hepatic tuberculosis. A great mimicker!! p. 368
Nitin James Peters, Ram Samujh, Vidhya Gunasekaran, KS Sodhi, Ritambara Duseja
Pediatric liver masses are rare and difficult to treat. Common liver masses in children include hepatoblastoma, hemangiomas, liver abscesses, and hydatid disease. Isolated liver tuberculosis (TB) is rare in children and can have variable clinical presentations. We report a child with isolated liver TB masquerading as a liver tumor.
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